First, follow the instructions from the link below to get the full kernel source. To confirm that this was actually a complete kernel, I also performed a make in ~/rpmbuild/BUILD/kernel-2.6.32-220.23.1.el6/ . This compiled the entire kernel, and proved to me that this was the full kernel source (unlike the packages kernel-devel and kernel-headers).
Once the "test build" was complete, I needed to build my kernel module against that kernel source. This was accomplished by doing ./configure --kernel-source-path=/home/myname/rpmbuild/BUILD/kernel-2.6.32-220.23.1.el6/ , followed by make && make install